GOLD Report

The Global Report on Local Democracy and Decentralization (GOLD) is a triennial publication on urban and regional development, which analyses and compares the current situation of local governments all over the world. Considered a world-wide flagship publication on urban governance issues, the report is coordinated by the UCLG and the Global Observatory on Local Democracy and Decentralization, and with the active involvement of the Decentralization and Local Self-Government Committee.  The reports are drawn up by leading regional specialists working in close consultation with local elected representatives and local government practitioners with experience on the ground.


Up to date, four reports have been issued: GOLD I (2007) offers a general overview of the state of local democracy and governance; GOLD II (2010) is the most comprehensive review of local financing across the world; GOLD III (2013) tackles the issue of local basic services; and GOLD IV (2016), which has been used as an evidence base to support the Global Agenda of Local and Regional Governments for the 21st Century.


*You can download the full reports by clicking on the images below


  • GOLD I: Decentralization and Local Democracy in the World (2007) 
  • GOLD II: Local Government Finance: The Challenges of the 21st Century (2010) [Executive Summary]
  • GOLD III: Basic Services to All in an Urbanizing World (2013) [Executive Summary]
  • GOLD IV: Co-creating an Urban Future: the Agenda for Metropolises, Cities and Territories (2016) [Executive Summary]